Frontline Dispatches – Vol 1-5



Africa The Defending Economic Livelihoods and Threatened Animals (DELTA) Act H.R. 4819 passed with bipartisan support and was signed into law by President Trump. Members of the International Conservation Caucus joined the Ambassadors of Botswana and Namibia, a parliamentary delegation from Angola, and institutional and private-sector stakeholders at an ICCF-hosted Dinner to celebrate its passage and discussed continued efforts to promote conservation and sustainable economic growth in the region. The DELTA Act instructs the U.S. government to partner with regional governments and other stakeholders to develop plans for sustainable management of resources and wildlife in the Okavango Watershed Region. Now, the U.S. government will be able to effectively contribute to the long-term health of the Okavango ecosystem and create sustainable livelihoods for people living throughout the region (Source; map source: http://www.okacom.org/okavango-river-basin).

The Mail & Guardian article “On the horns of a dilemma” gives background information on the upcoming battle on the legalization of rhino horn trade at the CITES CoP 18 in Sri Lanka. Author Yolandi Groenewald explores the perspectives of Pelham Jones (Private Rhino Owners’ Association, South Africa and of Jo Shaw, the WWF-SA rhino program manager. As costs escalate, South African rhino owners insist that the only way to protect them is to allow some form of legal trade in horns. eSwatini and Namibia, also believe that the expensive business of conserving rhinos could be funded by selling their horns. Groenewald’s full article can be downloaded here and is also available at the Conservation Frontlines Library.

Two Members of the Parliamentary Conservation Caucus-Kenya (PCC-K) visited Namibia for a parliamentary exchange with the Parliamentary Conservation Caucus in the Namibian Parliament. They discussed policies surrounding wildlife utilization and community conservancy models, and consulted with expert stakeholders on wildlife policies, including the Namibian Association of CBNRM Support Organizations (NACSO), World Wildlife Fund-Namibia, and Cheetah Conservation Fund. NACSO and WWF detailed Namibia’s conservancy landscape, emphasizing that the economic and revenue contribution of wildlife utilization and tourism provides enormous benefits to local communities, and in turn ensures that conservation is sustainable and wildlife valued at the local level. While significant differences exist between the Kenyan and Namibian contexts, the Kenyan policymakers will be equipped to leverage the principles from Namibia’s community conservancy experiences in their future policymaking responsibilities (Source).

Within Niger’s national West African giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis peralta) conservation strategy three male and five female giraffe were translocated over 800 kilometers from Kouré to Gadabedji Biosphere Reserve, setting up a new population in a secure and well-managed area within the former range of the species (Sahara Conservation Fund).

Feral horses in Namibia on the plains around Garub near Aus, at the eastern edge of the southern Namib Desert have been preyed upon by spotted hyenas. The horses are geographically restricted and confined to one water point because of their maladaptation to the hyper-arid environment. An interest group stirred up emotions by setting up a false dichotomy—horses or hyenas. The group pressured the Ministry of Environment and Tourism into action to protect the horses. After diversionary feeding to distract the hyenas (ironically, other horses were killed for that) failed, an attempt was made to capture and translocate the hyenas. Scientists warned against these actions. The feeding resulted in more hyenas being attracted and increased hyena breeding and recruitment. Because the feeding was done too close to the park border, it also resulted in hyenas moving onto neighboring farmland where they were killed (Read more).

The Kariba Dam built in the 1950s will be rehabilitated under the Kariba Dam Rehabilitation Project (KDHP). The dam captures the waters of the Zambezi, Africa’s 4th longest river. The 10-year project will cost $294 million, provided by the European Union, World Bank, African Development Bank and the Zambezi River Authority. (Source).

Liz Rihoy & Malan Lindeque published an Op-Ed in The Daily Maverick. Competing conservation ideologies: Troubled times for reporting on Namibian wildlife is the story of two ideological narratives that have emerged in African wildlife conservation. One is based on so-called ‘compassionate conservation’, aligned with mostly Western animal rights movements, the other on the human rights of the owners of the wildlife, the local people who live with wild animals. In Namibia, wildlife is thriving under the second narrative, which endorses consumptive use of wildlife. Rihoy and Lindeque expand on Gerhard Damm’s editorial published in Conservation Frontlines Vol. 1-2 “How The Truth On Community Wildlife Conservation In Namibia Is Twisted”.

Kavango-Zambezi Trans-Frontier Conservation Area (KAZA-TFCA) countries resolved to adopt scientific wildlife management. At the Joint Management Committee meeting in April, senior officials of the KAZA-TFCA member states (Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe) achieved a common position. They stated that “KAZA-TFCA is a conservation and development partnership of five governments; any program that promotes conservation must sustain livelihoods of rural communities and include sound scientific elephant management practices”. They also supported Botswana’s wildlife management approach. The position will be ratified at the KAZA-TFCA Elephant Summit in May (Source). Read the KAZA TFCA Joint Communiqué KAZA TFCA Ministers Meeting and the KAZA/TFCA Position on Elephant Population Management and Status in the Republic of Botswana (also available from the Conservation Frontlines Library).

Linyanti Explorations, the former leaseholders of NG16 (Selinda Reserve in Botswana) responded to Dereck Joubert, CEO of Great Plains, the current leaseholder, to set the record straight about trophy hunting impact on lions. Gail Potgieter, researcher at Okavango Lion Monitoring Project commented: “This concession holder appears to have done a lot more for wildlife management and monitoring than most in Botswana, including the current concession holders…. Perhaps monitoring work like that detailed in [Linyanti’s op-ed] is not sexy enough—not like documentaries of individual leopards. These efforts are, however, the very cornerstone of conservation—one cannot conserve anything without having detailed knowledge of numbers and trends over several years, [this] has been discontinued since Great Plains took over, [and] speaks volumes about [Great Plains’] commitment to real conservation that can’t be turned into nice flashy films.

Petrus Stephanus Steyn, 61, and Clive John Melville, 57 appeared briefly in the Brits Magistrate’s Court in April after they were nabbed in North West Province near Hartebeespoort Dam in possession of at least 167 rhino horns. Apparently, the horns were apparently legally sold in compliance with the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act and Threatened or Protected Species regulations. The two had permits issued by the Department of Environmental Affairs, but apparently illegally transported the horns from Gauteng Province to North West Province. There are very strict regulations on domestic trade within South Africa, and regarding the de-horning, storing, transporting and documenting of rhinos. A bail hearing for the two accused will be held on April 26 which may reveal the source(s) of the horns and the intended destination (IOL, Department of Environmental Affairs, The Citizens, and other sources).

We carried a news snippet about “Kenya planning to introduce capital punishment for poaching in our April issue. This information is incorrect. Kenya has no plans to introduce the death penalty for poachers (AFP Fact-Check).


North & South America

In bipartisan collaboration Congress has voted to reauthorize several programs to conserve iconic wildlife species around the world. The Act reauthorizes the African Elephant Conservation Act, the Asian Elephant Conservation Act of 1997, the Rhinoceros and Tiger Conservation Act of 1994, the Great Ape Conservation Act of 2000, and the Marine Turtle Conservation Act of 2004 through 2023. These Multinational Species Conservation Acts direct the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to create the Multinational Species Conservation Funds. Earlier this year, Congress appropriated $11 million for 2019. Further, the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Act was reauthorized through 2023; Congress appropriated $3.91 million for the program in 2019. The WILD Act establishes a series of Teddy Roosevelt Genius Prizes for technological advancement and innovation, including for “prevention of wildlife poaching and trafficking,” “promotion of wildlife conservation,” “management of invasive species,” “protection of endangered species,” and “nonlethal management of human-wildlife conflicts.” The FWS in partnership with the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation are authorized through 2023 and may award one prize in each category annually to the amount of $100,000 (Source).

A 17-foot-long (5.2 metres) female Burmese python weighing 64 kilograms and containing 73 developing eggs was captured by researchers at the Big Cypress National Preserve in Florida. They found the enormous reptile by tracking male pythons fitted with radio transmitters. Invasive Burmese pythons can decimate native wildlife and there are anywhere from 30,000 to 300,000 pythons now in southern Florida (Source).

A 2017 report by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service shows that nation-wide, participation in hunting has dropped from 14.1 million hunters to 11.5 million. Only 5% of Americans 16 years old and older actually hunt, about half from 50 years ago. Total annual hunter expenditure declined by 29% from 2011 to 2016, from $36.3 billion to $25.6 billion. That means less money for state fish and wildlife agencies. In response to the declines, there is a national movement underway called The Three R’s to recruit, retain and reactivate hunters and fishermen.  A survey by Responsive Management finds that lack of free time, family and work obligations, and lack of access the most common reasons why people give up hunting (from an article by James Swan in The Outdoor Wire).

Hundreds of thousands of North American waterfowl hunters have disappeared since 1970. This poses a threat for the future of hunting and conservation, said Tom Wiest in an article. We need more waterfowlers, and so do the ducks. Duck hunters buy federal duck stamps, an important funding source for waterfowl conservation. Delta Waterfowl published a special report in their magazine in the spring of 2017 that there were 2.03 million active U.S. waterfowlers in 1970, and only 998,600 in 2015. The steepest declines have occurred since 1997, despite high duck populations, longer hunting seasons and liberal bag limits. Canada’s waterfowler numbers have fallen even more drastically, peaking in 1978 at 505,681 and declining to fewer than 170,000 today.

A Guide for Lovers of Nature, Local Food, and Outdoor Recreation: A publication of the Aldo Leopold Foundation with support from the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Bast Durbin Advertising along with several other conservation organizations and businesses, the guide is a must-read for anyone who has an interest in nature and its well-being. A unique examination of hunting, it explores the ecological, economic, and social benefits of hunting through the lens of conservation. Learn how individuals from all different backgrounds have found ways to connect to the land through hunting and discover ways you can expand your own land ethic and demonstrate your own connection to nature through hunting. For more details on this resource read the Aldo Leopold Foundation Media Kit.

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s announced new, positive enhancement findings In October and November 2017 that would allow individuals to import sport-hunted elephants and lions from Zimbabwe.  Friends of Animals and Zimbabwe Conservation Task Force filed two lawsuits to challenge those positive findings in the federal district court in Washington, D.C. In December 2017, in a different case, the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit held that the FWS’s procedure for adopting enhancement findings violated the law.  In response to that ruling, in March 2018, the FWS withdrew several existing enhancement findings—both positive and negative—and announced a new procedure by which it would process import permit applications on an individual basis. The groups who had originally sued over the 2017 positive enhancement findings amended their lawsuits to challenge the FWS’s new procedure as well as the FWS’s withdrawal of the negative enhancement findings that had previously prohibited elephant trophy importation from Zimbabwe from 2014 to 2017. In March 2019 the district court in D.C. agreed with the FWS and dismissed the challenges.  The court found the claims against the 2017 enhancement findings were moot because the FWS had withdrawn those findings. The court recognized that the D.C. Circuit had invalidated the FWS’s prior enhancement findings as illegally adopted and thus denied the plaintiffs’ challenges to the FWS’s withdrawal of the negative enhancement findings. Finally, the district court dismissed the challenges to the new procedure for making an enhancement finding for each application because the groups and individuals were not harmed by the new procedure (i.e., they lacked legal standing to make those claims). In total, the district court dismissed all claims in both lawsuits that challenged the positive enhancement findings, withdrawal of the negative findings, and adoption of the new procedure for processing import applications (Source: SCI).

On April 4 2019, Raúl M. Grijalva (D-Ariz.) and 9 original cosponsors introduced the Conserving Ecosystems by Ceasing the Importation of Large (CECIL) Animal Trophies Act, a bill that restricts the importation of African lion trophies and other sport-hunted species that have been proposed for listing under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The CECIL Act was endorsed by 10 animal rights organizations (amongst them Born Free USA, The Humane Society of the United States, Endangered Species Coalition), all of them with an anti-hunting agenda. Apparently, Rep. Grijalva did not read what Prof. David Macdonald, who is intimately connected with lion research in Zimbabwe, said in a variety of peer reviewed articles and papers following the demise of this particular named lion (find them in our Conservation Frontlines Library).  Hunting and conservation bodies are reacting with consternation on Grijalva’s initiative. Here’s what Corey Mason from Dallas Safari Club had to say:



AsiaA team of scientists estimated the dhole (Cuon alpinus) population and its occupancy pattern in 16 protected forest reserves and adjoining landscapes covering an area of 37,000 square kilometers in Karnataka portion of Western Ghats in India. They found that 49 sites face threats of local extinction. The researchers emphasised that factors linked to human use of dhole habitats pose the highest level of threats. Dholes hunt in packs and tend to venture into forested landscapes adjoining protected areas. There, the presence of livestock affects habitat quality as livestock competes with the wild prey of dholes. Free-ranging feral dogs also adversely affect dholes because of competition for prey and by hosting a range of harmful pathogens (Source).

The critically endangered Saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis) in the forests of the Annamite Mountains of Viet Nam and Lao PDR was described scientifically only in 1992. This ungulate may now be the most endangered large mammal in the world. Due to the Saola’s rarity, elusiveness and a lack of investment in its conservation, precise population estimates are not possible. At best no more than a few hundred survive, but the population could only be in the tens. Although habitat loss and fragmentation have had a negative effect, the main threat to Saola survival is commercial poaching and the widespread use of wire leghold snares. Read more at the website of the Saola Working Group.

ICCF and Discovery Channel partnered to present TIGERLAND on Capitol Hill. The documentary follows people on the front lines trying to save tigers from extinction. In 2016, Discovery created Project C.A.T. (Conserving Acres for Tigers) to double the number of tigers in the wild by 2022. TIGERLAND, directed by Academy-Award winning filmmaker Ross Kauffman, tells the story of two individuals, living generations apart, who devoted their lives to tiger conservation in India and the Russian Far East. TIGERLAND premiered in March on Discovery and Discovery GO (Source).

Singapore seized more than 14 tons of pangolin scales in the largest single shipment on record. Roughly 36,000 pangolins were believed to have been killed for the shipment. Singaporean officials also found nearly 400 pounds of carved ivory. Earlier, 33 tons of pangolin meat were seized in two processing facilities in Malaysia and Hong Kong authorities intercepted a nine-ton shipment of pangolin scales and a thousand elephant tusks (Source).

In Afghanistan, war, drugs, corruption, and terrorism are terms more likely in the news than biodiversity conservation. But Alex Dehgan says conservation has the potential to offer a bridge toward a more peaceful Afghanistan. He lays out his case in a new book titled “The Snow Leopard Project And Other Adventures In Warzone Conservation” which follows his unorthodox career from a biologist and legal expert in Russia to his time with the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) setting up Afghanistan’s first national park. Dehgan argues that there is “an implicit understanding” among Afghans “of the links between conservation of the natural environment and their survival”. Details in Dehgan April 2019 interview with Mongabay. Dehgan’s 288-page book (ISBN-13: 9781610396950) is available at PublicAffairs for $28.

Chinese officials have seized 2,748 elephant tusks weighing more than 7 tons in one of the biggest busts across six provinces, the General Administration of Customs announced in April. Customs authorities added that since the beginning of 2019, they had filed 182 cases of smuggling of endangered wild species, seized more than 500 tons of endangered wildlife and their products, and arrested 171 suspects, disrupting 27 criminal gangs. China banned the domestic trade in elephant ivory in 2018 (Mongabay.com).



AsiaThe biggest peril to [animal] migrations is so common that we often fail to notice them: fences. Australia has the longest fences on Earth, say researchers Bill Laurance and Penny van Oosterzee. The 5,600-kilometre “Dingo Fence” separates southeastern Australia from the rest of the country, whereas the “Rabbit-Proof Fence” stretches for almost 3,300 kilometers across Western Australia. In their article “From Australia to Africa, fences are stopping Earth’s great animal migrations” they state that “these fences have caused recurring catastrophes, such as mass die-offs of emus and other species trying to find food and water in a land notorious for the unpredictability of its rainfall.” Deadly fences also exist in North America, Africa and Asia. Their “effectiveness” is compounded by human infrastructure development, threatening or cutting off wildlife corridors and migration routes. The good news is that removing barriers usually leads to animal migrations resuming spontaneously.


EuropeDuring the 2019 FACE Members’ Meeting hosted by the Royal Dutch Hunters’ Association, a high-level panels discussed the hottest topics facing European hunters in “Wild challenges for hunting and conservation”. The heads of Europe’s national hunting associations, experts from the academic world, representatives from the European Commission and industry as well as key European environmental NGOs discussed the future of lead in ammunition, large carnivore management, African swine fever in wild boar, and the sustainability of migratory bird hunting. They also emphasized the importance for FACE and its members to communicate the role that European hunters play in nature conservation, rural economies, education of younger generations and promoting cultural heritage (Source: FACE).

FACE appointed Dr. David Scallan as new Secretary General. Scallan previously served as FACE’s Senior Conservation Manager. He holds a Ph.D. from the National University of Ireland Galway with a dissertation examining the economic, ecological and social place of hunting in rural Ireland. As Secretary General, Scallan is looking forward to effectively implementing FACE’s work plan in conjunction with the heads of Europe’s national hunting associations (Source: FACE).

After seven years, the only online German-language hunting TV channel JagdundNatur.TV in Vienna went into insolvency and stopped operating. JagdundNatur.TV produced modern and professional programs and reports on hunting in diverse formats, but unfortunately found little support from hunting equipment manufacturers and the regional Austrian hunting officials.



WorldThe IUCN/TRAFFIC Analysis of the Proposals to Amend the CITES Appendices for the 18th Conference of the Parties to CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) and technical reviews of the proposals to amend the CITES Appendices can be downloaded here.

Biologists first described the chytrid fungus named Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in 1999This fungal disease is wiping out amphibians across the world. Chytridiomycosis eats away at an amphibian’s skin, disrupting the animal’s ability to take in water and air, ultimately killing it. In 2007, the disease was implicated in the decline or extinction of up to  200 frog species. Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans  produces a similar disease in salamanders, and has unleashed its devastation upon some of Europe’s salamander populations. Researchers have now found that chytridiomycosis has contributed to the decline of at least 501 amphibian species. Of these, some 90 species are presumably extinct and another 124 are suffering severe declines, researchers report in Science.

Island-dwelling animals often face a common threat: alien species that compete with them for food, kill them and their young, and otherwise hamper their ability to survive. Now, new research shows that culling the non-native invaders on 169 islands around the world could help save island animals at risk of extinction. In the last five centuries, 75 percent of amphibian, bird, mammal and reptile extinctions have occurred on islands, and invasive animals are the single biggest factor in those die-offs. The research was published in the journal PLOS ONE.

New Additions to the Conservation Frontlines Library




Library Category

Blackie I R & Sowa J 2019 Dynamics of Social Ecology of Elephant Conservation in Botswana and Implications on Environmental Development Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society
Boynton Graham


Heads together (Report on the Conservation Lab 2018) Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society
Boynton Graham (Conde Nast)


Is this the End of the Wild Rhino? Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society
Brown Chris (Africa Geographic Blog)


Ecologist responds to Guardian newspaper article against trophy hunting Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society
Donald Matthys (Namibia Economist )


Hunting preserves habitat, without it, we won’t have any wildlife left’ – Interview of the Namibia Economist with Danene van der Westhuyzen, President of the Namibia Professional Hunters’ Association Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society
Flyn Cal (The Guardian)


‘People think the deer are lovely. Then they learn more about it’: the deer cull dilemma Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society
Graham Brian, Kent Bryan & Nel Grant (Africa Geographic Blog)


Selinda Reserve in Botswana was not hunted out, say former owners in reply to Dereck Joubert Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society
Groenewald Yolandi (M&G South Africa)


On the horns of a dilemma Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society
KAZA TFCA Transfrontier Conservation Area


Joint Communiqué KAZA TFCA Ministers Meeting April 2019 Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society
KAZA TFCA Transfrontier Conservation Area


KAZA/TFCA Position on Elephant Population Management and Status in the Republic of Botswana Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society
Laurance Bill & van Oosterzee Penny (The Conversation)


From Australia to Africa, fences are stopping Earth’s great animal migrations Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society
Ledger Emma (The Independent)


Urgent investment needed to preserve one of Africa’s largest protected areas Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society
Manfredo M, Sullivan L, Carlos D, Dietsch A W, Teel A M, Bright T L & Bruskotter J


America’s Wildlife Values: The Social Context of Wildlife Management in the U.S. Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society
Marti G Andrea (NZZ)


Ein Amerikaner zahlt 110 000 Dollar für den Abschuss einer Ziege einer bedrohten Art – und trägt damit zu deren Schutz bei Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society
McCarney Paul 2018 Anthropomorphism: What Is It And Can It Benefit Conservation? Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society
McCarney Paul 2019 Are there species we shouldn’t hunt? Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society
Oberem Peter 2019 Legalising rhino horn trade the obvious answer to SA’s poaching problems Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society
Ogutu Joseph 2019 Wildlife migrations are collapsing in East Africa Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society
Wait Paul (Delta


2018 Looming Crisis: Falling waterfowl hunter numbers threaten the future of hunting and conservation Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society
Potgieter Gail (Africa Geographic Blog) 2019 Botswana has found her voice about elephants – but will we listen? Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society
Rihoy Liz & Lindeque Malan (The Daily Maverick) 2019 Competing conservation ideologies: Troubled times for reporting on Namibian wildlife Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society
Smith P A 2019 Proposal would prohibit shooting bucks in Buffalo County, one of America’s top deer-hunting destinations Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society
Vegter Ivo 2018 WWF aims to deceive with latest report Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society
Wilkinson Todd 2019 Can Greater Yellowstone’s Wildlife Survive Industrial Strength Recreation? Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society
Wilkinson Todd 2019 The Perils Of Going Along To Get Along Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society
Willcox Louisa (Counterpunch) 2019 Aldo Leopold’s Land Ethic and the Need for a New Approach to Managing Wildlife Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society
Biggs Duan, Ban Natalie C, Castilla Juan Carlos et al. 2019 Insights on fostering the emergence of robust conservation actions from Zimbabwe’s CAMPFIRE program Rural Communities, the Hereditary Custodians of Land and Wildlife
Boynton Graham 2012 Safari: Are too many tourists killing Africa’s wildlife? Rural Communities, the Hereditary Custodians of Land and Wildlife
Boynton Graham (The Times UK) 2019 Botswana is right to end its ban on elephant hunting Rural Communities, the Hereditary Custodians of Land and Wildlife