Frontline Dispatches – December 2019 Vol. I, No. 12
North & South America
Right whales are flocking to Massachusetts Bay. “The change in right whale presence in Massachusetts Bay . . . is striking,” say researchers. “It’s likely linked to rapid changes in conditions along the Atlantic Coast, especially in the Gulf of Maine, which is warming faster than 99% of the rest of the world’s ocean surface.” Overall, right whale numbers are declining; estimates peg the population at about 400 with only 95 of them females of reproductive age.
Vermont Gov. Phil Scott recognized hunting, fishing, recreational shooting and trapping to the economy of the Green Mountain State during a press conference in October. Sportsmen’s activities are the second largest driver of Vermont’s outdoor recreation economy. Each year, nearly 80,000 people are licensed to hunt in Vermont and more than 132,000 are licensed to fish.
The Sport Fish Restoration and Recreational Boating Safety Act of 2019 (H.R. 4828) was introduced in a bipartisan fashion by Congressional Sportsmen’s Caucus members.
BLM should manage wild horses to “appropriate levels,” says Andy Treharne, senior director for federal land policy for the Congressional Sportsmen’s Foundation, but the Bureau of Land Management has a hard time even keeping its website updated because wild horse populations are growing so fast. Read more about the problem in “Wild Horse Overpopulation: Should They Be Hunted?” in Petersen’s Hunting.
Caribou can see ultraviolet light at extremely low wavelengths. In a story in WideOpenSpaces, University College London Professor of Neuroscience Glen Jeffery noted that some things absorb UV light and therefore appear black, including urine (to caribou, a sign of predators or competitors), lichen (to caribou, a major winter food source) and fur (to caribou, possibly signaling “wolf”).
Just 28 years ago, California condors were extinct in the wild. Now, says a report in Hakai Magazine, their population in central California exceeds 100; throughout the southwest United States, the total wild population is well over 300 and increasing, thanks in part to efforts to stamp out the threat of lead poisoning.
New developments in non-lead ammunition. Federal Ammunition and Ducks Unlimited are joining forces to promote Tungsten Super Shot for long-lasting environmental benefits. Similarly, Federal and media company/lifestyle brand MeatEater will launch a comprehensive line of premium centerfire and rimfire non-lead ammunition for all hunting. (Outdoorhub)
Colorado Parks and Wildlife rejected the Wolf Project plan to release 50 wolves into the San Juan Mountains. However, per a November 7 story in the Montrose Daily Press, the Rocky Mt. Wolf Project will likely appear on next November’s ballot. A new organization, Coloradans Protecting Wildlife, representing the livestock industry has been formed to combat the plan. One member, Chad Vorthmann, executive vice-president of the Colorado Farm Bureau, said, “The decision about whether or not to introduce wolves to Colorado should be guided by science and left in the hands of experts, not the ballot box.”
Adam Putnam, 5th-generation farmer and the new CEO of Ducks Unlimited, says, “I’ve always taken the position that farmers and ranchers are the original conservationists, and the bulk of conservation takes place on private property that is also being used to feed the world.” Read some highlights from Brad Dokken’s interview with Putnam about his new position and DU’s plans and priorities.
States have begun targeting new groups to fill the ranks of hunters: foodies, city-dwellers, young adults and women. Rather than counting on family heritage and cultural ties to perpetuate the hunting message, they preach the gospel of ethically sourced food, healthy protein and respect for wildlife. For more, read Alex Brown’s article for the Pew Charitable Trusts’ “Recruiting Foodies and ‘Hipnecks’ as the New Hunters.” Hunting-related taxes and sales fund state fish & wildlife departments.
Illinois schools will provide hunter education as an in-class program or after-school activity to students across the state. Signed into law on July 26 by Gov. J.B. Pritzker, the initiative is designed to strengthen hunter interest and firearm safety among students.
Across North America, hunting is more significant than dwindling hunter numbers suggest. Emily Benson writes in High Country News that establishing one’s rights and identity, providing food for the family and finding one’s place in the natural world are deeply human activities that each of us pursue in some way. Ending the life of another being is a profound act and exploring the meaning behind that act is a worthy endeavor, even for the 96% of Americans who don’t participate in hunting. Reflecting on the motivations that unite hunters and non-hunters could inject a needed bit of empathy into all of our lives.
The trade in jaguar body parts is growing across Latin America, particularly in Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Peru and Suriname. The main driver is the illegal trade in jaguar teeth for the Chinese market, but Mongabay.com reports that commercialized ayahuasca tourism may be a significant contributor as well. Ayahuasca is a psychoactive brew, made from the ayahuasca vine and chakruna leaves, used for spiritual and physical healing in shamanic ceremonies, but has also become popular among visiting tourists. Jaguar canine pendants, skin bracelets and other products are being sold to tourists under the pretense that they somehow enhance the ayahuasca experience.
Seven bison were released in the Rhodope Mountains of Bulgaria last summer. And now—according to a story in The Telegraph—after eight centuries or more, the first bison (Bison bonasus, aka wisent) calf has been born in the wild in this rugged region on the country’s southern border with Greece. The long-term goal is a herd of up to 50 wisent. The largest European bison herd lives in the Bialowieza Forest shared between Poland and Belarus.
The EU’s Habitats Directive bans wolf killings and allows countries to cull wolves only where there’s “no satisfactory alternative” to prevent attacks on livestock or people. Sweden, a forested country with hundreds of wolves, has repeatedly challenged Brussels by issuing wolf-hunting licenses. The EU has cautioned Stockholm on several occasions and threatened legal action. France also wants a new wolf policy. The Commission seeks to defuse tensions and clarify flexibilities in the rules.
Germans remain meat & sausage eaters despite vegetarian and vegan publicity, consuming on average 60 kilos (132 lbs) of meat and sausages a year. Among the 73 million Germans over the age of 14, some 6 million (8%) are vegetarians and fewer than a million (1.4%) are vegans. Per a Nov. 12 story in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, the number of vegans has been fairly constant for years and the number of vegetarians is decreasing.
“Hunting in transition: Global Problems and Local Solutions” is the topic of the 26th Austrian Jägertagung (Hunters’ Congress), scheduled for March 9-10, 2020, in Aigen, Austria. Discussions will address many aspects of global change in Central Europe: land use, climate and society, how hunting must adapt to these changes, ethics in hunting and the responsibility of hunters on social media. Details and registration at email@example.com.
Hunting-license holders in Germany and Austria are increasing. People are discovering that training as a hunter, including the state hunting certifications in Germany and Austria, is “sound and informative.” In 2017-18, 384,428 persons were licensed to hunt in Germany; during the same period, some 130,000 Austrians held hunting licenses (Source: Jagdfakten.AT).
Romania has the most brown bears in Europe—6,000 to 6,600, according to the European Commission, and the highest human-bear interaction rate in the world—more than 40 bear attacks on humans were recorded in 2017, and this year three people have been killed by bears. Romanian senators voted in September to allow brown bears to be hunted for the next five years. The bill, still to be approved, has mobilized several groups to try to block it, including petitioning the WWF.
European hunters are increasingly concerned about African swine fever. New cases have occurred in western Poland, near the German border, and in southern Bulgaria close to the Greek border. In November, FACE, the European Federation for Hunting and Conservation, called for strict biosecurity standards to reduce transmission risks.
Robin and Pauline Hurt will receive the Peter Hathaway Capstick Hunting Heritage Award at the Dallas Safari Club Sporting Expo on January 11. They are the founders of Tanzania’s Robin Hurt Wildlife Foundation, which helps communities become better stewards of the environment through recognizing the value of natural resources and the sustainable utilization of wildlife. In Namibia, the Hurts established Habitat for Rhino to provide safe habitat for rhinos on private land. (See also Robin Hurt’s recent article in Conservation Frontlines.)
Professional culling is again on the table as environmental crises rock some regions overpopulated by elephants. A November 19 opinion piece in AllAfrica.com quotes American ivory advocate Godfrey Harris, who believes that Western animal-rights groups “are purposely ignoring” climate change in elephant range states. Severe droughts are now killing wildlife at, for example, Mana Pools National Park in Zimbabwe. Harris said, “To wrench the leadership of true wildlife conservation away from the animal-rights groups . . . I am urging sustainable-use advocates to move forward through alliances with those actively involved in opposing environmental degradation through climate change.”
Can fake rhino horn save the real thing? Oxford University scientists report, in the journal Scientific Reports on November 8, that glued bundles of horse tail hairs closely mimic rhino horn. They fabricated samples that were “confusingly similar to real rhino horn in look, feel and properties.
A new database traces poached ivory to its source to help authorities quickly identify where the confiscated tusks of African elephants were poached. Developed by an international team of researchers, the Loxodonta Localizer matches genetic sequences from poached ivory to those stored in the database.
200,000 Zambian farmers are making It’s Wild! a solution for protecting wildlife. The new COMACO (Community Markets for Conservation) web page introduces the full range of “nutritious, high-quality food products under the brand It’s Wild! . . . our products are as good for you as they are for Zambia. All proceeds from the sale of our products are channeled directly back into farmer support services and furthering our conservation goals.” Sharingourbest works with COMACO and others to get Zambian foods into co-ops and neighborhood markets in the US. Profits help boost COMACO’s Conservation Dividend payments to communities.
Zambia is developing an automated system for counting hippos in the Luangwa River, with satellite data donated by Digitalglobe. The cooperative effort on behalf of the Dept. of National Parks and Wildlife is led by Draper in collaboration with Cornell University and COMACO.
Also in Zambia, Nyalugwe community leaders and ex-poachers are planning a game preserve. Experienced local hunters under the leadership of the Honorable Chief Nyalugwe are restoring wildlife by identifying critical habitat and watering points. According to COMACO, the community vision is to set aside land for their own wildlife preserve that will become a source of income and employment.
Africa’s thorny trees and shrubs are no longer “Acacias.” The genus Acacia contains about 1,500 species and is widespread throughout Africa, Australia, Asia and America. According to Wildlife Vets Namibia, a reclassification of the taxonomic status of these trees proposed in 2003 has been adopted. The genus Acacia is reserved for the Australian native species; African species have been subdivided into two genera, Vachellia and Senegalia.
The African Carnivores Initiative reports on the conservation and management of cheetah, African wild dog, leopard and lion across Africa. The document, part of CMS, the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals, contains a draft resolution and draft decisions as well as “Guidelines on the Conservation of Lions in Africa” and a “Roadmap for the Conservation of Leopards in Africa.”
In “How to save CITES (if it’s worth saving),” in the Daily Maverick on Nov. 8, columnist Ivo Vegter writes that the withdrawal of the 16 SADC (Southern African Development Community) countries from CITES—a move that is being contemplated—would be a body blow to the agreement. Vegter suggests a solution: “To keep parties to the [CITES] treaty in, animal rights NGOs have to be kicked out.” He also draws a useful distinction between animal welfare and animal rights.
To preserve elephants and other wildlife, allow controlled hunting. Steve Forbes proposes this seemingly counterintuitive idea in “The Best Way To Save Africa’s Magnificent Elephants” in the November 30 issue of Forbes Magazine. An extensive program of controlled hunting and greater property rights, as well as markets for natural resources, could be extremely helpful to conservation, he suggests. Forbes also quotes Johns Hopkins economist Steve Hanke: “conventional approaches to wildlife management in Africa have failed, as witnessed by the dramatic declines in wildlife populations.”
Botswana will issue elephant quotas this month to allow marketing for the 2020 hunting season, which will begin in April. President Mokgweetsi Masisi included this in his state of the nation address, as published in Mmegi Online. Masisi added that his government is developing guidelines “to provide direction on hunting.” As part of his lengthy remarks on wildlife conservation, community rights and hunting, he also noted that “The failure by the international community to recognize that elephant conservation and management comes at great cost in terms of impacts on community livelihoods and protection of elephants from poaching has the potential to undermine the sterling conservation efforts by the southern African region.”
Poaching is a greater threat to wildlife than logging, at least in Southeast Asia. A large-scale study using camera traps in Vietnam, Borneo and Laos found that illegal hunting of ground-dwelling mammals and birds with snares appears to cause more losses to wildlife than forest degradation through logging.
Poaching of sloth bears in India has surged. In October, a special task force apprehended a Pardhi tribesman after many bear carcasses missing genitals and gall bladders had been found in the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. A reduction in bear-bile production from bear farms in Vietnam, South Korea, Cambodia, Laos and China seems to be behind the increase in poaching.
Gilgit Baltistan Wildlife Dept. announces the sale of hunting licenses under this Pakistani province’s trophy-hunting program. Parks and Wildlife Conservator Mahmood Ghaznavi said that four markhor, 20 bharal (blue sheep) and 100 Himalayan ibex licenses would be auctioned on November 19. One foreign markhor license alone will bring in US$75,000; blue sheep and Himalayan ibex licenses will bring in around US$81,000 and US$50,000 each. Some 80% of these funds will be distributed to local communities while the rest go to the central government. Gilgit Baltistan is home to argali, ibex, markhor, urial, bharal, snow leopard, wildcat, brown and black bear, wolf, fox, chukar partridge and golden eagle.
China is unique in both environmental challenges and opportunities. When the government forced millions of homes and businesses to switch from coal to natural gas, in 2016, concentrations of an unhealthy particulate dropped by 54% in Beijing. Now China has committed to increasing non-fossil-fuel energy production to around 20% by 2030. In the conservation sector, roughly 15% of China lies in more than 2,700 reserves. Most of this protected area is in the sparsely populated west and the Tibetan Plateau, but many threatened species’ habitats are in the densely populated eastern provinces. In 2018, China released a comprehensive national park plan that will put millions more acres under strict federal protection and new and higher conservation standards with stricter enforcement. On the flip side, China’s Belt and Road Initiative—a massive push to build infrastructure across continents—may amount to “greenwashing,” since China can now afford to protect its own ecosystems at the cost of destroying others in Africa, Asia and South America. Read “Green Glove, Iron Fist” by Gloria Dickie in BiogGraphic for a comprehensive view.
The silver-backed chevrotain, also known as the Vietnamese mouse deer (Tragulus versicolor), has been photographed in the wild for the first time in three decades in southern Vietnam. The species was first described by scientists in 1910. Its distinctive attributes include a two-toned pelage, lack of transverse throat stripe and white-tipped grizzled hair on the posterior of the body.
Hunters and sportshooters have contributed A$2.4 billion (US$1.6 billion) to the Australian economy and created 3,300 workplaces. Hunting alone contributed A$335 million (US$224.5 million). According to Wild & Hund, there are approximately 640,000 hunters and sportshooters in Australia.
The International Hunters Education Association’s 70-year quest to create safe, educated hunters includes developing hunter demographics and improving hunter-education programs. Each year, approximately 650,000 new people worldwide join the ranks of hunters as a result of an IHEA-approved course. For more, visit IHEA-USA.org.
Conservation initiatives often spread like disease, a fact that can help scientists and policymakers design conservation programs that are more likely to be widely adopted. Researchers at Australia’s Univ. of Queensland found that understanding the factors that lead to programs achieving scale is critical to savings species and ecosystems globally: “By understanding what makes conservation efforts ‘contagious,’ we can redesign future initiatives to boost their uptake.” A key factor is contact between those who’ve already implemented a new plan and those who might do so.
Carbon impact of clearing tropical forests is six times worse than previously calculated, according to research published in Science Advances on October 30. New accounting shows that the net carbon impact from tropical deforestation between 2000 and 2013 actually grew by 626%. The climate mitigation value of conserving the 549 million hectares (1.356 million acres) of remaining intact tropical forest is therefore significant but will soon dwindle significantly if the current rate of forest loss continues to accelerate.
What if flying is actually good for the planet? “Flight-shaming”—disrupting air travel by protesting the carbon emissions of jet travel—has become a “thing” at some airports, but in a Nov. 19 opinion in The New York Times, a former ecologist wrote: “While I recognize that flying is harmful to the climate, I also know what will happen if, in their understandable concern for climate change, travelers stop booking trips to go on a wildlife safari to Africa or decide to forgo that bucket list vacation to South America. Conservation and poverty alleviation will suffer twin blows.”
How would “Half Earth” affect human populations? As the extinction crisis escalates, some advocates are calling for hugely ambitious conservation targets, including setting aside 50% of Earth’s surface for nature. “Half Earth” and similar proposals are attractive to conservationists and certain policymakers, and researchers have now produced the first attempt to assess the effects on people if half the planet were “saved” to secure the diversity of the world’s habitats. The report, dated November 18, appears in Nature Sustainability.
Scientists propose alternatives to trophy hunting. In a response to a letter in support of trophy hunting as a conservation tool, signed by 131 wildlife scientists and experts and published in Science Magazine on August 30, in October the magazine published a rebuttal by 71 other scientists. They summarize the negative effects of trophy hunting and say that proposed trophy-import bans provide impetus to shift to more sustainable practices, including land-use and ownership reforms, diversified tourism and environmental investments.
“Anthropocene: The Human Epoch” takes viewers on a journey to some of the world’s most compromised habitats and landscapes. This gripping documentary was directed and photographed by the award-winning team of Jennifer Baichwal, Nicholas de Pencier and Edward Burtynsky. The horror is hypnotic, yet Anthropocene is also 87 minutes of great beauty and majesty. Watch the trailer on YouTube and read more about the film at The Revelator.
“Stuffed” looks at contemporary taxidermy. Erin Derham’s 84-minute documentary is both fascinating and freaky. Currently enjoying a worldwide resurgence, taxidermy has migrated from the trophy room to the art gallery (see the rogue taxidermy movement) as a younger generation from both the scientific and creative quarters uses it to reflect environmental concerns rather than hunters’ bragging rights. For more, read “For the women of the rogue taxidermy movement, there’s a curious allure to the taboo art” in the Los Angeles Times and “Fascinating taxidermy documentary ‘Stuffed’ may make for an awkward Thanksgiving.”
Sustainable use of wild species is key to sustainable development, write Dr. Marla Emery, Dr. Jean-Marc Fromentin and Prof. John Donaldson in an article published on Nov. 7 by the International Institute for Sustainable Development. The complex social and environmental issues around the use of wild species won’t be solved with simple policies. The Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services is undertaking a comprehensive intergovernmental assessment on the sustainable use of wild species. Developed by 87 experts from 45 countries, the assessment will be published in 2022.
New Additions to the Conservation Frontlines Library
|Biediger Shari||2019||San Antonio Wildlife Business a Rare Breed in Exotics Industry||Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society|
|Bombieri G, Naves J, Penteriani V et al.||2019||Brown bear attacks on humans: a worldwide perspective||Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society, Rural Communities, the Hereditary Custodians of Land and Wildlife, Conservation & Wildlife Management|
|Brown Alex||2019||Recruiting Foodies and ‘Hipnecks’ as the New Hunters||Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society, History of Hunting; Hunting in Culture & Arts, Conservation & Wildlife Management|
|Camenzind Franz (Mountain Journal)||2019||It’s Time To Get The Lead Out Of Hunting Ammo||Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society, Conservation & Wildlife Management|
|Cassirer F et al.||2018||Pneumonia in Bighorn Sheep: A Recent Review||Wildlife Diseases|
|Clark-Shen Naomi||2019||Can trophy hunting protect Asia’s wildlife?||Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society, Rural Communities, the Hereditary Custodians of Land and Wildlife, Conservation & Wildlife Management|
|Convention on Migratory Species (CMS)||2019||African Carnivore Initiative||Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society, Rural Communities, the Hereditary Custodians of Land and Wildlife, Conservation & Wildlife Management|
|Cox Mike (NMSGC)||2018||Wild Sheep Ram Hunting Permit Process for Western States and Provinces||Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society, Evolutionary Consequences of Hunting|
|Department of Environmental Affairs, Forestry and Fisheries (South Africa)||2019||Minister Barbara Creecy on partnerships to combat wildlife crime|
|Deutscher Jagdverband||2019||Jäger in Europa (Hunters in Europe) – 2018 Statistics||Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society|
|Dickie Gloria (BioGraphic)||2019||Green Glove, Iron Fist||Rural Communities, the Hereditary Custodians of Land and Wildlife, Conservation & Wildlife Management|
|Ellis E C & Watson J||2019||3 global conditions – and a map – for saving nature and using it wisely||Conservation & Wildlife Management|
|Fobar Rachel (National Geographic)||2019||Inside a controversial South African lion farm||Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society, Conservation & Wildlife Management|
|Forbes Steve||2019||The Best Way To Save Africa’s Magnificent Elephants|
|Freedman Lew||2019||Where is hunting now?||Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society|
|Freedman Lew||2019||Hunting has wide appeal: A lifetime of trophies||Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society|
|French Paul||2019||American hunter who hastened demise of the South China tiger, and how Mao’s assault on nature finished it off||History of Hunting; Hunting in Culture & Arts|
|Garwood T J et al. (NMSGC)||2018||Selective Removal May Lead to Recovery of Ailing Bighorn Sheep Herds||Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society, Wildlife Diseases|
|Halas Gabriela (High Country News)||2019||In Southeast Alaska, a hunter searches for kinship with the wild||Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society|
|IUCN SSC Lagomorph Specialist Group||2019||Bunolagus monticularis – Riverine Rabbit||Conservation & Wildlife Management|
|Littlewood Nick A et al.||2019||The influence of different aspects of grouse moorland management on nontarget bird assemblages|
|Loveless K, Proffitt K & Decesare N (NMSGC)||2018||Age Structure of Harvested Mountain Goats as a Metric for Assessing Sustainable Harvest||Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society, Evolutionary Consequences of Hunting, Biometric Assessment & Monitoring|
|Mansell-Moulin, David||2019||Supporting Indigenous peoples to restore the balance between wildlife and food security||Rural Communities, the Hereditary Custodians of Land and Wildlife, Conservation & Wildlife Management|
|McKean Andrew (Petersen Hunting)||2019||Wild Horse Overpopulation: Should They Be Hunted?||Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society, Conservation & Wildlife Management|
|McKeanAndrew & Carmichel Jim||2019||Is Game Meat Shot With Lead Safe To Eat?||Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society, History of Hunting; Hunting in Culture & Arts, Conservation & Wildlife Management|
|McTee Mike (Journal of Mountain Hunting)||2019||Lead Bullets: Hunting for Clarity in a Controversy|
|Menicucci Dave||2019||An Innovative Strategy for Elk Management on Private Lands||Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society|
|Nguyen An et al.||2019||Camera-trap evidence that the silver-backed chevrotain Tragulus versicolor remains in the wild in Vietnam||Conservation & Wildlife Management|
|Oroschakoff Kalina & Livingstone Emmet||2019||Wolves return to haunt EU politics|
|Palencia P et al.||2019||Estimating day range from camera‐trap data: the animals’ behaviour as a key parameter||Conservation & Wildlife Management|
|People Not Poaching (Conf. Proc.)||2019||Illegal wildlife trade in Latin America and the Caribbean – Voices of the Communities||Rural Communities, the Hereditary Custodians of Land and Wildlife, Conservation & Wildlife Management|
|Pulkkinen Levin (High Country News)||2019||Killing Bullwinkle: Big money and controversy surround Western trophy hunts||Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society|
|Quammen David (NGS)||2019||‘I am scared all the time’: Chimps and people are clashing in rural Uganda|
|Semcer Catherine||2019||New ESA Rules To Engage Private Sector In Species Recovery|
|Smith Anna V (High Country News)||2019||A hunt for tribal recognition at the U.S.-Canada border||Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society, Rural Communities, the Hereditary Custodians of Land and Wildlife|
|Smith Kirby et al. (NMSGC)||2018||Monitoring of hunted mountain goat populations in west‐central Alberta: insights gained over more than four decades.||Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society, Evolutionary Consequences of Hunting|
|Soofi M, Ghoddousi A, Zeppenfeld T et al.||2019||Assessing the relationship between illegal hunting of ungulates, wild prey occurrence and livestock depredation rate by large carnivores|
|Thuermer Angus M||2019||Bird group puts lead ammunition in the crosshairs|
|Urbina Ian (New York Times)||2018||Poisoned Wildlife and Tainted Meat: Why Hunters Are Moving Away From Lead Bullets||Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society, History of Hunting; Hunting in Culture & Arts, Conservation & Wildlife Management|
|Vaidyanathan Gayathri||2019||India’s tigers seem to be a massive success story — many scientists aren’t sure||Conservation & Wildlife Management|
|van Vliet Nathalie et al.||2019||Frameworks Regulating Hunting for Meat in Tropical Countries Leave the Sector in the Limbo||Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society, Rural Communities, the Hereditary Custodians of Land and Wildlife, Conservation & Wildlife Management, Wild Foods|
|Vegter Ivo (The Daily Meverick)||2019||How to save CITES (if it’s worth saving)||Conservation & Wildlife Management|
|Vidal John||2019||Why indigenous peoples and traditional knowledge are vital to protecting future global biodiversity||Conservation & Wildlife Management|
|Wendling B, Want J & Brockman C (NMSGC)||2018||Assessing Dall’s Sheep Horn Morphometrics as a Management Tool||Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society, Biometric Assessment & Monitoring|
|Yorke Rob (The Shooting Gazette)||2019||We need to talk about lead shot||Hunting in the 21st Century; Hunting Ethics and Fair Chase; Hunting in Society, Wildlife Diseases|